Coming Technologies • Demand Growth Potential Over the Next 30 Years


Nuclear Fusion and Particle accelerators both require helium as a coolant. Liquid helium is used similarly to cool superconducting magnets
utilised in NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) scanners, particle accelerators used in physics research and containment of plasma in nuclear
fusion reactors. For more information go to:


Quantum computers operate under extreme cold, at temperatures near sub zero. For example, the IBM quantum computer operating
temperature is 0.045 Kelvin. Such low temperatures can only be achieved by cooling down the chip with liquified helium.